This is a socio-demographic analysis carried out for the Lombardy provinces and for the municipalities with Auser headquarters. The calculation of all the indicators is based on 3-year data, between 2019 and 2021, deriving from 14 websites and databases. In particular, we have calculated 6 indicators. For each we present: a summary histogram with the data for all three years of survey and by Auser province/municipality and two maps for each year created using the "QGis" software.


The provinces with the with most of the elderly are Pavia, Cremona, Mantua (in the south of Lombardy) and Sondrio (in the north). The value has also been growing in the last three years, with the exception of Pavia and Lodi where the 2021 value has remained almost constant with that of 2020. The "youngest" provinces are instead the central ones, such as Milan, Bergamo or Brescia , as they are the ones with the largest number of people of working age, as we will see shortly.

This index indicates the ratio between the number of residents aged over 65 and the number of young people aged up to 14, per cent.


It is the ratio of the population aged over 65 to the population aged 15-64, per cent.

Also in this case the reference provinces are Pavia, Cremona and Mantua. Naturally, where there are older people, the dependency ratio is also more likely to be higher. It can be seen that this index is generally increasing except for the province of Milan and Cremona, which could depend on the contraction of the over 65 population, mainly due to covid-19, compared to the working age population (15-64 years old) .


The lower the index value, the younger the working-age population.

It is the ratio of the population aged 60-64 to the population aged 15-19, per cent.

Milan, Bergamo and Brescia are the provinces with the lowest index and not by chance, since they are also the provinces with a "lower" incidence of elderly people, as we have seen from the previous graphs and maps. We should therefore not be surprised if Pavia, Cremona, Mantua and Sondrio, once again, are those with the highest index. In Sondrio, in particular, this index has grown more strongly in the last year than in all the other provinces.


We have calculated the retirement rate in the over-65 population.

It is the ratio between the number of over 65 pensioners and the over 65 population, per thousand.

First of all, it can be seen that this rate decreased in 2020 compared to 2019. This may be due, at least in part, to deaths from Covid-19. In addition, the retirement age has also increased to 67, up from 66 and 7 months previously. The provinces that have suffered the most evident drop are Bergamo, Cremona and Lodi. Bergamo and Lodi, for example, we also know were the provinces most affected by the pandemic in the first phase.


It is the ratio of males over 65 to females over 65, per cent.

Generally the ratio of masculinity has grown, except in the province of Bergamo. The provinces with fewer males are Milan, Pavia and Mantua. Conversely, they are the three provinces with the highest prevalence of women. When this ratio approaches 100 it means that there is an equal presence of the sexes, if it is less than 100 there is a female prevalence and if it is greater than 100 there is a male prevalence.

The following graphs shows the same ratio on the feminility index side.


The average number of deaths per 1000 inhabitants.

In this case we have calculated both the generic mortality rate and that for the over 65 population. Let's look in particular at the second histogram and we see that the provinces with the highest mortality rate are Bergamo, Cremona and Lodi. Looking at the graphs, it is possible to see that in all age groups it is mainly men who die, except for the 90-year-old and over group. This can be explained by the fact that the Italian population, and Lombardy in particular, is mainly composed of women who have a higher life expectancy at birth than men. Therefore, many women age a lot regardless of their state of health, while men on average die earlier so those who reach 90 years and older are those who are generally in good health and therefore are less likely to die.

Here it is shown the mortality index of the entire population in 2019 and 2020.

The next graphs show the male and female mortality index in 2019 and 2020.


We calculated three indicators:

  • RSA rate per 1000 inhabitants;

  • rate of social offers for the elderly x 1,000 inhabitants;

  • rate of social cooperatives x 100,000 inhabitants.

Due to the conformation of Open Data Lombardia it was not possible to download the data relating to the three years of our survey, since the datasets present in the platform are overwritten as the data is updated. In this specific case, in fact, the data have been updated – compared to the last time they were consulted, on 14 March 2022.

Milan and Bergamo are those that in general have fewer services dedicated to the elderly and this is not surprising when comparing this result with the data previously illustrated, in which we have seen that these two provinces are also those with a lower incidence of the elderly population, on the contrary instead of Pavia, Cremona, Mantua and Sondrio which have many more services for the elderly.